ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRO AUTOMOBILES

Advantages of an Electric Car

An electric car is a great way for you, as a consumer, to save a lot of money on gas. However, there are so many different reasons why you should invest in an electric car in the modern day of technology.

1. No Gas Required: Electric cars are entirely charged by the electricity you provide, meaning you don’t need to buy any gas ever again. Driving fuel based cars can burn a hole in your pocket as prices of fuel have gone all time high. With electric cars, this cost can be avoided as an average American spends $2000 – $4000 on gas each year. Though electricity isn’t free, an electric car is far cheaper to run.

2. Savings: These cars can be fuelled for very cheap prices, and many new cars will offer great incentives for you to get money back from the government for going green. Electric cars can also be a great way to save money in your own life.

3. No Emissions: Electric cars are 100 percent eco-friendly as they run on electrically powered engines. It does not emit toxic gases or smoke in the environment as it runs on clean energy source. They are even better than hybrid cars as hybrids running on gas produce emissions. You’ll be contributing to a healthy and green climate.

4. Popularity: EV’s are growing in popularity. With popularity comes all new types of cars being put on the market that are each unique, providing you with a wealth of choices moving forward.

5. Safe to Drive: Electric cars undergo same fitness and testing procedures test as other fuel powered cars. In case an accident occurs, one can expect airbags to open up and electricity supply to cut from battery. This can prevent you and other passengers in the car from serious injuries.

6. Cost Effective: Earlier, owing an electric car would cost a bomb. But with more technological advancements, both cost and maintenance have gone down. The mass production of batteries and available tax incentives have further brought down the cost, thus, making it much more cost effective.

7. Low Maintenance: Electric cars runs on electrically powered engines and hence there is no need to lubricate the engines. Other expensive engine work is a thing of past. Therefore, the maintenance cost of these cars has come down. You don’t need to send it to service station often as you do a normal gasoline powered car.

8. Reduced Noise Pollution: Electric cars put curb on noise pollution as they are much quieter. Electric motors are capable of providing smooth drive with higher acceleration over longer distances.

Many owners of electric cars have reported positive savings of up to tens of thousands of dollars a year. Considering the demand for oil will only be going up as the supplies run out, an electric car will most likely be the normal mode of transportation in the coming future. Companies like Nissan and Tesla offer great electric models with an outstanding amount of benefits for people who decide to invest. You’ll be saving not only yourself, but also your family a huge amount of money. The environmental impactof an electric car is zero, as well – meaning you’re reducing your carbon footprint and positively affecting the economy.

Advantages of an Electric Car

An electric car is a great way for you, as a consumer, to save a lot of money on gas. However, there are so many different reasons why you should invest in an electric car in the modern day of technology.

1. No Gas Required: Electric cars are entirely charged by the electricity you provide, meaning you don’t need to buy any gas ever again. Driving fuel based cars can burn a hole in your pocket as prices of fuel have gone all time high. With electric cars, this cost can be avoided as an average American spends $2000 – $4000 on gas each year. Though electricity isn’t free, an electric car is far cheaper to run.

2. Savings: These cars can be fuelled for very cheap prices, and many new cars will offer great incentives for you to get money back from the government for going green. Electric cars can also be a great way to save money in your own life.

3. No Emissions: Electric cars are 100 percent eco-friendly as they run on electrically powered engines. It does not emit toxic gases or smoke in the environment as it runs on clean energy source. They are even better than hybrid cars as hybrids running on gas produce emissions. You’ll be contributing to a healthy and green climate.

4. Popularity: EV’s are growing in popularity. With popularity comes all new types of cars being put on the market that are each unique, providing you with a wealth of choices moving forward.

5. Safe to Drive: Electric cars undergo same fitness and testing procedures test as other fuel powered cars. In case an accident occurs, one can expect airbags to open up and electricity supply to cut from battery. This can prevent you and other passengers in the car from serious injuries.

6. Cost Effective: Earlier, owing an electric car would cost a bomb. But with more technological advancements, both cost and maintenance have gone down. The mass production of batteries and available tax incentives have further brought down the cost, thus, making it much more cost effective.

7. Low Maintenance: Electric cars runs on electrically powered engines and hence there is no need to lubricate the engines. Other expensive engine work is a thing of past. Therefore, the maintenance cost of these cars has come down. You don’t need to send it to service station often as you do a normal gasoline powered car.

8. Reduced Noise Pollution: Electric cars put curb on noise pollution as they are much quieter. Electric motors are capable of providing smooth drive with higher acceleration over longer distances.

Many owners of electric cars have reported positive savings of up to tens of thousands of dollars a year. Considering the demand for oil will only be going up as the supplies run out, an electric car will most likely be the normal mode of transportation in the coming future. Companies like Nissan and Tesla offer great electric models with an outstanding amount of benefits for people who decide to invest. You’ll be saving not only yourself, but also your family a huge amount of money. The environmental impactof an electric car is zero, as well – meaning you’re reducing your carbon footprint and positively affecting the economy.

 

Disadvantages of an Electric Car

Although the evidence of the positives has become very clear, there are also some downsides that each individual needs to consider before they decide to make an electric car their next big investment. These reasons are:

1. Recharge Points: Electric fuelling stations are still in the development stages. Not a lot of places you go to on a daily basis will have electric fuelling stations for your vehicle, meaning that if you’re on a long trip and run out of a charge, you may be stuck where you are.

2. Electricity isn’t Free: Electric cars can also be a hassle on your energy bill if you’re not considering the options carefully. If you haven’t done your research into the electric car you want to purchase, then you may be making an unwise investment. Sometimes electric cars require a huge charge in order to function properly – which may reflect poorly on your electricity bill each month.

3. Short Driving Range and Speed: Electric cars are limited by range and speed. Most of these cars have range about 50-100 miles and need to be recharged again. You just can’t use them for long journeys as of now, although it is expected to improve in future.

4. Longer Recharge Time: While it takes couple of minutes to fuel your gasoline powered car, an electric car take about 4-6 hours to get fully charged. Therefore, you need dedicated power stations as the time taken to recharge them is quite long.

5. Silence as Disadvantage: Silence can be a bit disadvantage as people like to hear noise if they are coming from behind them. An electric car is however silent and can lead to accidents in some cases.

6. Normally 2 Seaters: Most of the electric cars available today are small and 2 seated only. They are not meant for entire family and a third person can make journey for other two passengers bit uncomfortable.

7. Battery Replacement: Depending on the type and usage of battery, batteries of almost all electric cars are required to be changed every 3-10 years.

8. Not Suitable for Cities Facing Shortage of Power: As electric cars need power to charge up, cities already facing acute power shortage are not suitable for electric cars. The consumption of more power would hamper their daily power needs.

9. Some governments do not provide money saving initiatives in order to encourage you to buy an electric car.

10. Some base models of electric cars are still very expensive because of how new they are and the technology it took to develop them.

Just because there is a variety of factors doesn’t mean they have to be overwhelming. Doing a fair bit of research into different models, and maybe even hybrids, will help you make an accurate decision moving forward. However, no matter how you look at it, an electric car can save our precious environment.

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Computers help electric cars turn

 

Designing an electric car isn’t as simple as it might seem. Engineers can’t just swap out the gas tank for a big bank of batteries. Besides using a different energy source, many electric cars also transfer energy to the car’s wheels in a different way. Instead of gears, they relay the power with electrical cables. This simplifies a car’s mechanical layout. It also, however, makes it much harder to control an electric car’s wheels during a turn. Luckily, engineers at Ohio State University think they’ve solved it. Their solution: They use computers to control the speed of each individual wheel.

A typical car produces power when its engine burns gasoline (or diesel) to move a piston up and down in a cylinder. The transmission transfers that mechanical energy to the wheels. It does so through a variety of rods, gears and other equipment. Sometimes that power only goes to two wheels (as in front- or rear-wheel-drive cars). Four-wheel-drive vehicles provide torque to each wheel. (Torque is a twisting force — unlike the push or pull that tends to shove or tug an object in one direction.)

To make today’s vehicles run smoothly as they turn corners, automakers include a set of gears known as a differential. It allows some wheels to rotate at different speeds. To be precise, it lets wheels on the outside of a turn rotate faster than those on the inside of a turn. They have to, explains Junmin Wang, because wheels on the outside of the turn have to travel farther, in a given span of time, than do the inside wheels. (A mechanical engineer at Ohio State University, Wang studies how to make electric cars safe and reliable.)

Without a differential, wheels on one side or the other would slip or skid during every turn. That would decrease the vehicle’s overall traction. It also would make car tires wear out faster than normal.

The challenge, Wang says, has been coordinating wheel speeds in all-electric vehicles without using a differential. Not only do electric vehicles send power to the wheels through wires, but many also give each wheel its own motor. (This tends to make the car lighter.) But, a computer must control each in-wheel motor’s speed.

Determining how fast each wheel should rotate remains a big challenge. That’s what Wang and his team worried over while designing their all-electric car. Their prototype, or early version, began its life as an off-road vehicle (like many armers and hunters use).

The engineers removed their car’s engine, transmission and differential. Then they installed a motor in each wheel and a computer. With its extra-heavy-duty batteries, the final car tips the scales at about 800 kilograms (a little more than 1,750 pounds). That’s about the same as the original vehicle. If they had this altered a full-size car this way, the weight savings would have been even greater.

 

With each new batch of data, the computer calculates how fast each wheel should be rotating to make the car’s ride safe and smooth. Then it directs the batteries to deliver the proper amount of power to each wheel. Afterward, the computer checks how each wheel responds. If each wheel isn’t turning at the proper speed, the computer will adjust it. Wang’s group shares details on this computer control of their car’s wheels in the January 2013 issue of Control Engineering Practice.

“The computer and sensors make a virtual differential,” explains Wang. If a vehicle doesn’t have a real, gear-based differential, he notes, some sort of computerized control is vital. After all, if a car’s wheels don’t rotate at the proper speeds, they could send the vehicle in the wrong direction or into a skid, flip or crash.

The team’s results “are very interesting,” says Pierre Sicard. He’s an electrical engineer at the University of Quebec in Three Rivers, Canada. Monitoring wheel speed is useful for preventing the car from skidding or locking up its brakes, he notes.

But monitoring wheel speed can help in other ways too, he adds. For instance, electric vehicles can recover energy when they’re braking. (In most cars today, braking converts kinetic energy into heat, which is lost. But with the right equipment, the kinetic energy of a car’s motion can be converted to electrical energy. This can be returned to the batteries and stored for later use, Sicard points out.) Boosting energy efficiency is one of the big challenges automotive engineers will face with all cars in.

 

Power Words

accelerometer  An instrument for measuring vibrations or a change in the rate of movement. These sensors typically can measure movement changes in all three dimensions (front-to-back, side-to-side, and up-and-down).

differential  The set of gears that enables wheels on the outside of a vehicle’s turn to travel faster than those on the inside of the turn. This difference in rotational speed is required because the outer wheels have to travel a greater distance when a vehicle turns.

electrical engineer  An engineer who designs, builds, or analyzes electrical equipment.

engine  A machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. Sometimes an engine is called a “motor.”

engineer  A person who uses science to solve problems. As a verb, to engineer means to design a device, material or process that will solve some problem or unmet need.

GPS  Abbreviation for Global Positioning System.

GPS device  This system uses devices that calculate their position (in terms of latitude, longitude and elevation — or altitude) at any place on Earth, whether on the ground or in the air. They do this by comparing how long it takes signals from different satellites to reach them.

kinetic energy  The energy held by an object due to its being in motion. The amount of this energy contained will depend on both the mass (usually weight) of the object and its speed.

mechanical engineer An engineer who designs, builds or operates machines.

motor  A device that converts electricity into mechanical motion.

prototype  A first or early model of some device that still needs to be perfected.

transmission  In a liquid-fueled vehicle, the machinery used to transfer power from the engine to the drive wheels.

ELECTRO AUTOMOBILES

I have chosen the topic electro automobiles.An electric vehicle, also called an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or a generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electric spacecraft.

EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The internal combustion engine has been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost 100 years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.

 

 

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MORE ABOUT ELECTRO AUTOMOBILES

The power of a vehicle electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts (kW). 100 kW is roughly equivalent to 134 horsepower, although electric motors can deliver their full torque over a wide RPM range, so the performance is not equivalent, and far exceeds a 134 horsepower (100 kW) fuel-powered motor, which has a limited torque curve.

Usually, direct current (DC) electricity is fed into a DC/AC inverter where it is converted to alternating current (AC) electricity and this AC electricity is connected to a 3-phase AC motor.

For electric trains, forklift trucks, and some electric cars, DC motors are often used. In some cases, universal motors are used, and then AC or DC may be employed. In recent production vehicles, various motor types have been implemented, for instance: Induction motors within Tesla Motor vehicles and permanent magnet machines in the Nissan Leaf.